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10个C语言基础算法

admin 2019-10-13 13:01 152人围观 C++相关



算法是一个程序和软件的灵魂,作为一名优秀的程序员,只有对一些基础的算法有着全面的掌握,才会在设计程序和编写代码的过程中显得得心应手。本文是近百个C语言算法系列的第二篇,包括了经典的Fibonacci数列、简易计算器、回文检查、质数检查等算法。

1、计算Fibonacci数列

Fibonacci数列又称斐波那契数列,又称黄金分割数列,指的是这样一个数列:1、1、2、3、5、8、13、21。

C语言实现的代码如下:

/* Displaying Fibonacci sequence up to nth term where n is entered by user. */
#include
int main()
{
int count, n, t1=0, t2=1, display=0;
printf("Enter number of terms: ");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("Fibonacci Series: %d+%d+", t1, t2); /* Displaying first two terms */
count=2;    /* count=2 because first two terms are already displayed. */
while (count
{
display=t1+t2;
t1=t2;
t2=display;
++count;
printf("%d+",display);
}
return 0;
}

结果输出:

Enter number of terms: 10
Fibonacci Series: 0+1+1+2+3+5+8+13+21+34+
也可以使用下面的源代码:
/* Displaying Fibonacci series up to certain number entered by user. */
#include
int main()
{
int t1=0, t2=1, display=0, num;
printf("Enter an integer: ");
scanf("%d",&num);
printf("Fibonacci Series: %d+%d+", t1, t2); /* Displaying first two terms */
display=t1+t2;
while(display
{
printf("%d+",display);
t1=t2;
t2=display;
display=t1+t2;
}
return 0;
}

结果输出:

Enter an integer: 200
Fibonacci Series: 0+1+1+2+3+5+8+13+21+34+55+89+144+

2、回文检查

源代码:

/* C program to check whether a number is palindrome or not */
#include
int main()
{
int n, reverse=0, rem,temp;
printf("Enter an integer: ");
scanf("%d", &n);
temp=n;
while(temp!=0)
{
rem=temp%10;
reverse=reverse*10+rem;
temp/=10;
}
/* Checking if number entered by user and it's reverse number is equal. */
if(reverse==n)
printf("%d is a palindrome.",n);
else
printf("%d is not a palindrome.",n);
return 0;
}

结果输出:

Enter an integer: 12321
12321 is a palindrome.

3、质数检查

注:1既不是质数也不是合数。

源代码:

/* C program to check whether a number is prime or not. */
#include
int main()
{
int n, i, flag=0;
printf("Enter a positive integer: ");
scanf("%d",&n);
for(i=2;i<=n/2;++i)
{
if(n%i==0)
{
flag=1;
break;
}
}
if (flag==0)
printf("%d is a prime number.",n);
else
printf("%d is not a prime number.",n);
return 0;
}

结果输出:

Enter a positive integer: 29
29 is a prime number.

4、打印金字塔和三角形

使用 * 建立三角形

*
* *
* * *
* * * *
* * * * *

源代码:

#include
int main()
{
int i,j,rows;
printf("Enter the number of rows: ");
scanf("%d",&rows);
for(i=1;i<=rows;++i)
{
for(j=1;j<=i;++j)
{
printf("* ");
}
printf("\n");
}
return 0;
}

如下图所示使用数字打印半金字塔。

1
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5

源代码:

#include
int main()
{
int i,j,rows;
printf("Enter the number of rows: ");
scanf("%d",&rows);
for(i=1;i<=rows;++i)
{
for(j=1;j<=i;++j)
{
printf("%d ",j);
}
printf("\n");
}
return 0;
}

用 * 打印半金字塔

* * * * *
* * * *
* * *
* *
*

源代码:

#include
int main()
{
int i,j,rows;
printf("Enter the number of rows: ");
scanf("%d",&rows);
for(i=rows;i>=1;--i)
{
for(j=1;j<=i;++j)
{
printf("* ");
}
printf("\n");
}
return 0;
}

用 * 打印金字塔

*
* * *
* * * * *
* * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * *

源代码:

#include
int main()
{
int i,space,rows,k=0;
printf("Enter the number of rows: ");
scanf("%d",&rows);
for(i=1;i<=rows;++i)
{
for(space=1;space<=rows-i;++space)
{
printf("  ");
}
while(k!=2*i-1)
{
printf("* ");
++k;
}
k=0;
printf("\n");
}
return 0;
}

用 * 打印倒金字塔

* * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * *
* * * * *
* * *
*

源代码:

#include
int main()
{
int rows,i,j,space;
printf("Enter number of rows: ");
scanf("%d",&rows);
for(i=rows;i>=1;--i)
{
for(space=0;space
printf("  ");
for(j=i;j<=2*i-1;++j)
printf("* ");
for(j=0;j
printf("* ");
printf("\n");
}
return 0;
}

5、简单的加减乘除计算器

源代码:

/* Source code to create a simple calculator for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using switch...case statement in C programming. */
# include
int main()
{
char o;
float num1,num2;
printf("Enter operator either + or - or * or divide : ");
scanf("%c",&o);
printf("Enter two operands: ");
scanf("%f%f",&num1,&num2);
switch(o) {
case '+':
printf("%.1f + %.1f = %.1f",num1, num2, num1+num2);
break;
case '-':
printf("%.1f - %.1f = %.1f",num1, num2, num1-num2);
break;
case '*':
printf("%.1f * %.1f = %.1f",num1, num2, num1*num2);
break;
case '/':
printf("%.1f / %.1f = %.1f",num1, num2, num1/num2);
break;
default:
/* If operator is other than +, -, * or /, error message is shown */
printf("Error! operator is not correct");
break;
}
return 0;
}

结果输出:

Enter operator either + or - or * or divide : -
Enter two operands: 3.4
8.4
3.4 - 8.4 = -5.0

6、检查一个数能不能表示成两个质数之和

源代码:

#include
int prime(int n);
int main()
{
int n, i, flag=0;
printf("Enter a positive integer: ");
scanf("%d",&n);
for(i=2; i<=n/2; ++i)
{
if (prime(i)!=0)
{
if ( prime(n-i)!=0)
{
printf("%d = %d + %d\n", n, i, n-i);
flag=1;
}
}
}
if (flag==0)
printf("%d can't be expressed as sum of two prime numbers.",n);
return 0;
}
int prime(int n)      /* Function to check prime number */
{
int i, flag=1;
for(i=2; i<=n/2; ++i)
if(n%i==0)
flag=0;
return flag;
}

结果输出:

Enter a positive integer: 34
34 = 3 + 31
34 = 5 + 29
34 = 11 + 23
34 = 17 + 17

7、用递归的方式颠倒字符串

源代码:

/* Example to reverse a sentence entered by user without using strings. */
#include
void Reverse();
int main()
{
printf("Enter a sentence: ");
Reverse();
return 0;
}
void Reverse()
{
char c;
scanf("%c",&c);
if( c != '\n')
{
Reverse();
printf("%c",c);
}
}

结果输出:

Enter a sentence: margorp emosewa
awesome program

8、实现二进制与十进制之间的相互转换

/* C programming source code to convert either binary to decimal or decimal to binary according to data entered by user. */
#include
#include
int binary_decimal(int n);
int decimal_binary(int n);
int main()
{
int n;
char c;
printf("Instructions:\n");
printf("1. Enter alphabet 'd' to convert binary to decimal.\n");
printf("2. Enter alphabet 'b' to convert decimal to binary.\n");
scanf("%c",&c);
if (c =='d' || c == 'D')
{
printf("Enter a binary number: ");
scanf("%d", &n);
printf("%d in binary = %d in decimal", n, binary_decimal(n));
}
if (c =='b' || c == 'B')
{
printf("Enter a decimal number: ");
scanf("%d", &n);
printf("%d in decimal = %d in binary", n, decimal_binary(n));
}
return 0;
}
int decimal_binary(int n)  /* Function to convert decimal to binary.*/
{
int rem, i=1, binary=0;
while (n!=0)
{
rem=n%2;
n/=2;
binary+=rem*i;
i*=10;
}
return binary;
}
int binary_decimal(int n) /* Function to convert binary to decimal.*/
{
int decimal=0, i=0, rem;
while (n!=0)
{
rem = n%10;
n/=10;
decimal += rem*pow(2,i);
++i;
}
return decimal;
}

结果输出:



9、使用多维数组实现两个矩阵的相加

源代码:

#include
int main(){
int r,c,a[100][100],b[100][100],sum[100][100],i,j;
printf("Enter number of rows (between 1 and 100): ");
scanf("%d",&r);
printf("Enter number of columns (between 1 and 100): ");
scanf("%d",&c);
printf("\nEnter elements of 1st matrix:\n");
/* Storing elements of first matrix entered by user. */
for(i=0;i
for(j=0;j
{
printf("Enter element a%d%d: ",i+1,j+1);
scanf("%d",&a[j]);
}
/* Storing elements of second matrix entered by user. */
printf("Enter elements of 2nd matrix:\n");
for(i=0;i
for(j=0;j
{
printf("Enter element a%d%d: ",i+1,j+1);
scanf("%d",&b[j]);
}
/*Adding Two matrices */
for(i=0;i
for(j=0;j
sum[j]=a[j]+b[j];
/* Displaying the resultant sum matrix. */
printf("\nSum of two matrix is: \n\n");
for(i=0;i
for(j=0;j
{
printf("%d   ",sum[j]);
if(j==c-1)
printf("\n\n");
}
return 0;
}

结果输出:



10、矩阵转置

源代码:

#include
int main()
{
int a[10][10], trans[10][10], r, c, i, j;
printf("Enter rows and column of matrix: ");
scanf("%d %d", &r, &c);
/* Storing element of matrix entered by user in array a[][]. */
printf("\nEnter elements of matrix:\n");
for(i=0; i
for(j=0; j
{
printf("Enter elements a%d%d: ",i+1,j+1);
scanf("%d",&a[j]);
}
/* Displaying the matrix a[][] */
printf("\nEntered Matrix: \n");
for(i=0; i
for(j=0; j
{
printf("%d  ",a[j]);
if(j==c-1)
printf("\n\n");
}
/* Finding transpose of matrix a[][] and storing it in array trans[][]. */
for(i=0; i
for(j=0; j
{
trans[j]=a[j];
}
/* Displaying the transpose,i.e, Displaying array trans[][]. */
printf("\nTranspose of Matrix:\n");
for(i=0; i
for(j=0; j
{
printf("%d  ",trans[j]);
if(j==r-1)
printf("\n\n");
}
return 0;
}

结果输出:



来源:网络






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